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Novel coating material expected to accelerate bone regeneration for dental implant procedures

Researchers from South Korea have developed a coating material for titanium mesh to accomplish more reliable clinical outcomes using guided bone regeneration. (Image: Nihkuom/Shutterstock)

POHANG/SEOUL, South Korea: Guided bone regeneration is widely used for dental implant surgeries. However, in patients with insufficient bone quantity and quality, this approach is less successful and requires a longer treatment period. Depending on the configuration of the defect sites, the use of barrier membranes alone to prevent the ingrowth of non-osteogenic cells is not sufficient to significantly facilitate bone regeneration. Therefore, researchers from South Korea have developed an osteogenic barrier coating material that is expected to improve the success rate of implant treatment, regardless of the bone quality of the implant site.

Guided bone regeneration maintains the space for bone to grow and prevents non-osteogenic cells, such as fibroblasts, from populating the bone defect site, allowing the bone to grow without interference. Even though titanium mesh, one of the most commonly used membranes for guided bone regeneration, performs well and is biocompatible, it can be susceptible to soft-tissue ingrowth through its pores. Therefore, the joint research team from Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Kyungpook National University in Daegu in South Korea and Korea University Anam Hospital in Seoul developed a coating material to accomplish reliable clinical outcomes using guided bone regeneration.

The research team coated a titanium mesh with the osteogenic barrier material loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), an osteoinductive growth factor, and found that it performed excellently as a bioactive physical barrier and was capable of sustained release of the BMP-2. The coating prevented the ingrowth of soft-tissue cells and attracted osteogenic cells in vitro, significantly facilitating bone regeneration. When used on a titanium mesh in vivo in calvarial defects in rats, the novel coating led to a distinguishable acceleration of the formation of new bone.

Lead author Prof. Hyung-Joon Cha, head of the Department of Chemical Engineering at POSTECH, commented in a press release that the study findings demonstrated the possibility of improving the success rate of dental implants, regardless of the original bone condition.

The researchers concluded that their “osteogenic barrier coating can open new avenues to accomplish satisfactory clinical outcomes in bone therapies as a promising and practical [guided bone regeneration] approach with further expansion to more general bone tissue engineering including titanium-based prostheses”.

The study, titled “Cell recognitive bioadhesive-based osteogenic barrier coating with localized delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 for accelerated guided bone regeneration”, was published online on 18 January 2023 in Bioengineering and Translational Medicine, ahead of inclusion in an issue.

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